The birth of Mongols

There are many traces of an ancient human race in the territory of Mongolia. These are attested to by the archaeological discovery in the white cave of Bayanlig and stone weapon found in the Uran Khairkhan hill of Baa-tsagan somon Bayankhongor aimag. According to these discoveries, it is possible to say that the human race were living in the territory of Mongolia almost 700 thousand years ago.
There is a hypothesis that Mongolia is a cradle where the first human race were living. It is in corroboration of proof. It is certain that there was an uninterrupted settlement. This assumption is based on the outward appearances of Mongols. Mongols had straight black hair, with broad foreheads, small thick eye lash, short-nose, prominent cheek bones, burly chests, narrow waists and the thick set features of the Mongoloid race. They were the ancestors of the present Mongol race. Such type of people are a product of the nature and the climate of Mongolia over the course of many thousands of years. The perfection of the labour produced conscious people of the present day almost 40.000 years ago. At that period they used to share labour
tools and their hunting catches, lived a nomadic lifestyle, engaged in animal husbandry and produced bronze and iron weapons. As this material wealth increased Clan leaders and dominant figures possessed them and became powerful. This was the origin of private
ownership in Mongolia. Due to this, equality was displaced. Clan structure collapsed. The wealthy families came into aimag structure.
Several aimags joined and formed the confederation of aimags. The election of Clan leaders at the clan conference became null and void.
Descendants of blue blood families of wealthy origin took more authority by inheritance. Ties of kinship became strong and powerful. The authority became vested in the heads of powerful aimags. The class society and the state took shape.

The period of the Hunnu (Hsiung-nu) state / 3-rd century
BC-2nd century AD/

Mongol, Turk and Jurchen races were living in the Mongolian territory from an ancient time. They alternatively ruled each other. One took power and subdued the others. However the first politically organised community among them was the Hunnu State. It was the progenitor of the states of Mongolia. According to the chronicles there was a nomadic tribe called as Khu in the 5th century before our era. They engaged in animal husbandry and each of them had its chief.
They formed the confederation of tribes. They were Hunnu people who distinguisned themselves by their prosperity in the 4th century before our era. This confederation annexed 24 Hunnu aimags. The Khan of the Hunnu people was Tumen. Tumen came from the blue blood family of Khian tribe. Since that period Khan had not been elected at the conference and became dynastic. But the Hunnu people became victims of the aggressive policy pursued by the Ching dynasty to expand its territory to the north. The mainstay of the Hunnu people was driven away from the Ordos territory where the climate is most favourable. The Chinese fortified their wall which was partial, in order to contrive their expansion in 216 year before our era. Tumen Khan endeavoured to unite various Hun aimags and organise his state. It failed. Tumen Khan, induced by his young wife, permitted his son from his youngest wife to became the heir to the throne. But his elder son Modun, hereditary successor flew into a rage and assassinated both his father and younger half brother. He himself acceded to the throne in 209 years before our era. The Hunnu State was not only of Mongol origin, but it was also the first state which
was organised among the nomadic people of central Asia. Modun Khan took back the Ordos territory occupied by the Ching dynasty.
He annexed the eastern Khu of the same origin. They attached the north and west nomadic people and subdued some of them. In the 200 year before our era Modun Khan defeated a Chinese invasion of 300000 soldiers. In the 198 year before our era Modun Khan made a
treaty with the Hun state of china. The Hun dynasty of China, thus, recognised that the Hunnu State had become powerful and there was no other way than co-existence. The Chinese wall provided the common border between two states. In the wake of it, Modun Khan conquered western Turkestan and controlled the trade road which connected the occidental and oriental countries. The Hunnu State developed the characteristics of a big power. The territory of the
Hunnu State extended from the Ordos to the lake Baikal and from the Kyanggan mountain range beyond to the Altai mountain range beyond. Some aimags under the rule of the Hunnu State struggled to get rid of the Hunnu domination. This was instigated by the Hun Dynasty of China for many years. As a result of their instigation the Hunnu State was divided into two parts in the 48th year before our era. The south Hunnu was allied to the Chinese. One group of north
Hunnu moved to the farther north, 100 thousand families remained. They were over 500 thousand human population. They came under Cian-bi domination in the 93 year. The Hunnu State collapsed.

The prosperous period of Cian-bi (Hsien-pi) of Mongolia
/2nd-4th centuries AD./

Among the blue blood families there were arguments. The course of arguments changed and went in two directions. It deteriorated. The south Hunnu were susceptible to the Chinese domination and the north Hunnu people despaired. Since middle of the first century of our era the Cian-bi people existed on the territory of Mongolia. A certain number of the blue blood families moved farther north. Then the territory of north Hunnu looked desolate. These who remained, over 100 thousand families in another word over 500 thousand Hun people joined the Cian-bi people who organised their Cian-bi State.
Tanishikhuai/136-181/ played an important role in organising and consolidating the Cian-bi State. The Cian-bi State grew strong and expanded its territory in the east and joined the Tsyatsang people of the same origin and occupied the territory up to the Korean peninsula.
The Cian-bi State was situated on the territory from the lake of Baikal to the Chinese wall and from the Korean peninsula to the iL Tarbagatai. Tanishikhuai divided his State in the east, the central and the west parts. He ruled his State through 12 overlords. In 181 year Tanishikhuai passed away and his son Khelyang succeeded him as the heir. He was rapacious and dissolute. He was injustice in the administration of justice. This turpitude motivated the discontented among the masses. The State deteriorated. There was a power struggle. The Cian-bi State disintegrated and became independent aimags. Kebinen, overlord of one aimag, gathered over 10 thousand soldiers within a short period of time and restored the Cian-bi State
again. In 235 Kebinen died. There was internal dissension. The Chinese Vei State instigated it from the outside. As a result in the middle of the third century of our era the Cian-bi State was divided into the east and west Cian-bi States . The Cian-bi State, thus, collapsed.

The prosperous period of the Jujan State (Rouran)

The Jujan State is related to the Cian-bi people through kinship. They were Mongolian speaking people. This State encompassed Mongolia, the western part of Manchuria and eastern part of the Uighur autonomic region in the present Sing-zian. In the 5th century the territory of the Jujan State was the lake of Baikal in the north, Gobi and Chinese wall in the south, the Altai mountain range beyond in the west and Korean peninsula in the east. The political centre of the Jujan State was at the foot of the Khanggai mountain range.

The prosperous period of the Turkish State

The aim of the Turkish State was to expand its territory and collect the products of agriculture and crafts, and to control a great trade road running from the east to the west. At the 580s the Turkish State expanded and annexed various aimags and nationalities of diverse origin. They defeated the Ephtalit State in the west and subdued the Kirghiz people lived in the Enisei basin of Siberia in the north. The Tsi and Chou states of china paid a tribute to the Turkish State. At the period of Turkish State the territory was expanded and it reached the Korean peninsula. At the end of the 4th century there was intensive internal dissension. As a consequence the Turkish State was divided into the east and west parts. Uighur people, who were a component
part of the Turkish State, capitalised on the situation, revolted against the rulers and defeated the eastern Turkish State in 745 years. The Uighur State took power and became the successor of the Turkish State.

Remark: Orkhon inscription

There is a concentration of many lettered monuments in the valley of the Orkhon river. They are called Orkhon inscriptions or Orkhon culture.

The prosperous period of the Uighur State

The Uighur State adopted and continued the policy of the previous Turkish State and maintained normal relations with China and other countries. The territory of Cian-bi was very vast as it was and extended from the Altai mountain in the west and to the Khyangan mountain in the east and from Soyon in the north and to the Gobi beyond to the south. During this period the Uighur State controlled the great trade road from China to the middle Asia as caravans. The
specific feature of the period of the Uighur State was the preference for land ownership. It was a form of feudalism. The Uighur State existed for around a hundred years. The Kirghiz people lived in the Enisei basin annihilated the Uighur State in the 840s. In the 9th century Kirghizian feudal State was established. Not so long after this, they were forced down by the Kitan people and moved away from the Mongolian territory.

The prosperous period of the Kitan state

Between the 10th and 12th centuries the Kitan people took power. They lived in the Liao river in the eastern side of the Khyangan mountains and engaged in the cattle, horses and small animals and lead a transhumant life. The power of the Kitan State was uninterruptedly taken by the Elui tribe in the 10th century and on. In the year 901 Ambagyan of the Elui tribe acceded to the throne. The Kitan State was characterised as a big power by occupying the south-east of Mongolian territory in the year 924, Bahain in the year 936, 16 regions in the north of China. As consequences of internal dissension and of the revolts of various tribes of mixed ethnic groups
the Kitan State declined and became unable to resist the allied forces of the Golden State (Kin) established in the northern part of the Jurchid and of the Sung Dynasty of China. At the end of 1120s the Kitan State collapsed.

Mongol School.

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